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Monday, October 23, 2017
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FERPA

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
(To view the forms in Spanish, please contact Solomon School.)

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. § 1232g; 34 CFR Part 99) is a Federal law that protects the privacy of student education records. The law applies to all schools that receive funds under an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education.

FERPA gives parents certain rights with respect to their children's education records. These rights transfer to the student when he or she reaches the age of 18 or attends a school beyond the high school level. Students to whom the rights have transferred are "eligible students."


Parents or eligible students have the right to inspect and review the student's education records maintained by the school. Schools are not required to provide copies of records unless, for reasons such as great distance, it is impossible for parents or eligible students to review the records. Schools may charge a fee for copies.

Parents or eligible students have the right to request that a school correct records which they believe to be inaccurate or misleading. If the school decides not to amend the record, the parent or eligible student then has the right to a formal hearing. After the hearing, if the school still decides not to amend the record, the parent or eligible student has the right to place a statement with the record setting forth his or her view about the contested information.

Generally, schools must have written permission from the parent or eligible student in order to release any information from a student's education record. However, FERPA allows schools to disclose those records, without consent, to the following parties or under the following conditions (34 CFR § 99.31):

*School officials with legitimate educational interest;

*Other schools to which a student is transferring;

*Specified officials for audit or evaluation purposes;

*Appropriate parties in connection with financial aid to a student;

*Organizations conducting certain studies for or on behalf of the school;

*Accrediting organizations;

*To comply with a judicial order or lawfully issued subpoena;

*Appropriate officials in cases of health and safety emergencies; and

*State and local authorities, within a juvenile justice system, pursuant to specific State law.

Schools may disclose, without consent, "directory" information such as a student's name, address, telephone number, date and place of birth, honors and awards, and dates of attendance. However, schools must tell parents and eligible students about directory information and allow parents and eligible students a reasonable amount of time to request that the school not disclose directory information about them. Schools must notify parents and eligible students annually of their rights under FERPA. The actual means of notification (special letter, inclusion in a PTA bulletin, student handbook, or newspaper article) is left to the discretion of each school.

For additional information, you may call 1-800-USA-LEARN (1-800-872-5327) (voice). Individuals who use TDD may call 1-800-437-0833.

Or you may contact us at the following address:

Family Policy Compliance Office
U.S. Department of Education
400 Maryland Avenue, SW
Washington, D.C. 20202-8520



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NOTIFICATION OF CONFIDENTIALITY RIGHTS REGARDING EDUCATION RECORDS OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR PARENTS

Confidentiality of education records is a right of public school students and their parents. Two federal laws, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) provide this right. Under these laws, "education records" means those records that are: (1) directly related to a student; and (2) maintained by an educational agency or institution or by a party acting for the agency or institution. Of course, education records are maintained on every child enrolled in a public school. The types of information gathered and maintained includes, but is not limited to: the student's and parents' names, address and telephone number; the student's date of birth, date of enrollment in the school, records from previous schools attended, attendance records, subjects taken, grades, school activities, assessment results, number of credits earned, immunization records, disciplinary records, if any, correspondence from parents, and child find and other screening results, including hearing and vision screening results.

In addition, for children with disabilities, education records could include, among other things, evaluations and testing materials, medical and health information, each annual Individualized Education Program (IEP), notices to parents, notes regarding IEP meetings, parental consent documents, information provided by parents, progress reports, assessment results, material related to disciplinary actions, and mediation agreements.

The information is gathered from a number of sources including the student's parents and staff of the school of attendance. Also, with parental permission, information may be gathered from additional sources including doctors and other health care providers.

This information is gathered to assure proper identification of a student and student's parents and the maintenance of accurate records of the student's progress and activities in school. For children with disabilities, additional information is collected in order to assure the child is identified, evaluated, and provided Free Appropriate Public Education in accordance with the state and federal special education laws.

Each agency participating under Part B of IDEA must assure that all stages of gathering, storing, retaining and disclosing education records to third parties that it complies with the federal confidentiality laws. In addition, the destruction of any education records of a child with a disability must be in accordance with IDEA regulatory requirements.

The federal Family Policy Compliance Office of the U.S. Department of Education has provided the following notice of parent's rights under FERPA.

The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) affords parents and students over 18 years of age ("eligible students") certain rights with request to the student's education records. They are:

(1) The right to inspect and review the student's education records within 45 days of the day the school receives a request for access.
Parents or eligible students should submit to the school principal (or appropriate school official) a written request that identifies the record(s) they wish to inspect. The principal will make arrangements for access and notify the parent or eligible student of the time and place where the records may be inspected.

(2) The right to request the amendment of the student's education records that the parent or eligible student believes are inaccurate or misleading.
Parents or eligible student may ask a school district to amend the records that they believe is inaccurate or misleading. They should write the school principal, clearly identify the part of the record they want changed, and specify why it is inaccurate or misleading.
If the school decides not to amend the record as requested by the parent or eligible student, the school will notify the parent or eligible student of the decision and advise then of their right to a hearing regarding the request for amendment. Additional information regarding the hearing procedures will be provided to the parent or eligible student when notified of the right to a hearing.

(3) The right to consent to disclosure of personally identifiable information contained in the student's education records, except to the extent that FERPA authorizes disclosure without consent. One exception, which permits disclosure without consent, is disclosure to school officials with legitimate educational interests. A school official is a person employed by the school as an administrator, supervisor, instructor, or support staff member (including health or medical staff and law enforcement unit personnel); a person serving on the school board; a person or company with whom the school has contracted to perform a special task (such as an attorney, auditor, medical consultant, or therapist); or a parent or student serving on an official committee, such as disciplinary or grievance committee, or assisting another school official in performing his or her task. A school official has legitimate educational interest if the official needs to review an education record in order to fulfill his or her professional responsibility.
Upon request, a school may disclose education records, without consent, to officials of another school district in which a student seeks or intends to enroll.
An agency reporting a crime committed by a student with a disability shall ensure that copies of special education and disciplinary records of the student are transmitted for consideration by the appropriate authorities to whom it reports the crime. An agency reporting a crime may transmit copies of the student's special education and disciplinary records only to the extent permitted by FERPA.

(4) The right to file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education concerning alleged failures by a school to comply with the requirements of FERPA. The name and address of the office that administers FERPA is:
Family Policy Office
U.S. Department of Education
400 Maryland Ave. SW
Washington D.C. 20202-5910

A school may designate information in education records as "directory information" and may disclose it without parent consent, unless notified that the school is not to disclose the information without consent. The law defines "directory information" as follows:

The student's name, address, telephone listing, date and place of birth, major field of study, participation in officially recognized activities and sports, weight and height of members of athletic teams, dates of attendance, degrees and awards received, and the most recent previous educational agency or institution attended by student.

Notice of these rights are available, upon request, on audio tape, in Braille, and in languages other than English. You may contact the Arizona Department of Education at 602-542-3111.


Early Intervention Child Find

If you have concerns about your child's development or progress in school, contact the Arizona Early Intervention Program or your local school district.

WHAT IS CHILD FIND?

It is a process to "find" children who may have a delay in development of a disability. The Arizona Early Intervention Program and local schools can help children with disabilities from birth through 21 years old. They provide early intervention and special education services for eligible children. Ther are no costs for Child Find services.

WHAT IF I HAVE CONCERNS?

If you have concerns about your child's development or progress in school, you may receive help through Child Find. COntact the Arizona Early Intervention Program or your local school district.

HOW DOES CHILD FIND WORK?

If your child is under 3 years old, an Arizona Early Intervention specialist will come to your home to talk to you about your concerns and observe your child.
For children ages 3 through 21, local schools use screening tools to check your child's development or performance in the areas that affect development and learning in school:
* vision and hearing
* motor control and coordination
* behavior and social skills
* speech and language skills
* thinking and performing tasks
* adaptive behavior

Childfind helps identify areas and concerns that may need further evaluation. Ask for a copy of "A Checklist of Your Chiild's Growth from Birth to Five". This pamphlet helps you to follow your child's development.

WHAT HAPPENS NEXT

If an evaluation is needed, you will be part of the evaluation team. You give information on your child's development, medical history, and concerns you have about your child's development.
The team will explain the results to you after the evaluation is copmpleted. If the evaluation shows your child is eligible to receive early intervention, preschool or school-ages specail education services, you can decide to accept or decline.

WHAT IS EARLY INTERVENTION?

Early intervention provides supports and services to help families strengthen their child's development. Early intervention is planned around each child and family's unique daily routines and family life.
For more information about the Arizona Early Intervention Program, visit this website www.ade.state.as.us/azeip/ or call 1-888-439-5690.

WHAT IS PRESCHOOL SPECIAL EDUCATION?

Preschool education services include special strategies to help the chiuld reach developmental milestones. These may include realsted services such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, physwical therapy, or assistive technology.
Preschool services are provided in a preschool group or classroom setting at no cost to the parent

WHO DO I CONTACT FOR CHILD FIND?

* for children ages birth to 3, phone numbers for the local Arizona Early Intervention Program offices are listed. Call your local Arizona Early InterventionProgram and ask to speak to an Interim Service Coordinator. For Graham County, Safford (928)428-7231
* For children ages 3 to 5 years, call Solomon School at (928)428-0477
* For children ages 5 to 21 years, call Solomon School at (928)428-0477

For Child Find information, visit this web site:ade.az.gov/ess/childfind or call 1-800-352-4558 and ask for Child Find. Ask for a copy of "Traveling the Special Education Highway".


SPECIAL EDUCATION PROCESS

Child Find and Identification
A. Review records
B. Conduct screening
C. Conduct and document prereferral activities
D. Make referral for evaluation
E. Provide PWN (Prior Written Notice)
F. Provide PSN (Procedural Safeguards Notice)

1. Initial Evaluation and Determination of Eligibility
A. Provide Meeting Notice, if a meeting is held
B. Review existing data by MET/IEP team members
C1: If no additional data needed
* determine eligibility
* develop evaluation report
* provide PWN, review parental rights regarding
initial evaluation
C2: If additional data needed
* provide PWN
* obtain parental consent
* gather additional data
* determine eligibility
* develop evaluation report
* provide PWN
D. Provide parent evaluation report and eligibility determination

2. IEP (Individualized Education Plan) Development
A. Provide Meeting Notice
B. Complete IEP
C. Determine levels of service and LRE (Least Restrictive Environment)

3. Initial Placement
A. Obtain written parental consent
B. Provide PWN

4. IEP Implementation in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
A. Inform teachers of IEP responsibilities and provide IEP access
B. Provide services
C. Prepare progress reports and submit to parents

5. Review and Revision of IEP
A. Provide Meeting Notice and Annual PSN
B. Review/revise IEP
C. Determine levels of service and LRE
D. Provide parents PWN and copy of IEP

6. Reevaluation and Determination of Eligibility
A. Provide Meeting Notice as appropriate
B. Document the Review of Existing Data by MET/IEP team members
C1: If NO additional data needed
*Nofify parents of right to request additional
data; PWN
*Document parent agreement that no additional evaluation
is needed
*Determine continued eligibility
*Provide PWN
C2: If additional data needed
*Provide PWN
*Obtain parental consent
*Gather additional data
*Determine additioanl data
*Develop reevaluation report
*Provide PWN
7. Review and Revision of IEP (return to step 5)
OR Dismiss from Special Education
A. Provide evaluation report and eligibility determination
B. Provide PWN



Tourette Syndrome

(from ERIC Digest)
"Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by repeated, involuntary body movements (tics) such as blinking, twitching, shoulder shrugging, or leg jerking and vocal sounds such as throat clearing or sniffing. Symptoms typically appear before age 18 and the condition occurs in all ethnic groups with males affected 3 to 4 times more often than females. Associated conditions can include obsessivity, attentional problems, and impulsiveness."

Proper Learning Environment:
*Do not react with anger when actions or noises become annoying - remember they are involuntary!
*Provide short breaks
*Take tests in private room
*Modify writing assignments
*Assign a "note-taking buddy"
*Do not penalize for spelling errors
*Use manipulatives for Math
*Provide visual and auditory input
*One to two step directions
*Provide a private place to work
*Preferential seating near teacher
*Limit distractions
*Break assignments into smaller segments


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Occupational Therapy

Occupational Therapists in the school setting look at certain skills issues which may interfere with a child’s educational performance such as hand function, oral motor function, visual motor and perceptual skills, sensory awareness/processing, self-care and pre-vocational tasks. These areas can be addressed through a variety of intervention strategies, which may include direct therapy with the child, consultation with the teacher, modification of the environment, provision of adaptive equipment, and staff training.
School-based occupational therapy is designed to enhance the student's ability to fully access and be successful in the learning environment.
This might include working on handwriting or fine motor skills so the child can complete written assignments, helping the child organize himself or herself in the environment (including work space in and around the desk), working with the teacher to modify the classroom and/or adapt learning materials to facilitate successful participation.


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Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

Accute and early diagnosis is crucial for the child with attention deficit disorder. This will facilitate a treatment plan and reduce the chances of secondary problems. Compare the child's behavior with the following list of symptoms.

1.INATTENTION - At least three of the following:
a. often fails to finish things started
b. often doesn't seem to listen
c. is easily distracted
d. has difficulty concentrating on schoolwork or other tasks requiring sustained attention
e. has difficulty sticking to a play activity

2. IMPULSIVITY At least three of the following
a. often acts before thinking
b. shifts excessively from one activity to another
c. has difficulty organizing work
d. needs a lot of supervision
e. frequently calls out in class
f. has difficulty awaiting turn in games or group situations

3. HYPERACTIVITY - at least two of the following
a. runs about or climbs on things excessively
b. has difficulty sitting still or fidgets a lot
c. has difficulty staying seated
d. moves about excessively during sleep
e. is always "on the go" or acts as if "driven by a motor"

4. ONSET BEFORE THE AGE OF 7

5. DURATION OF AT LEAST 6 MONTHS

6. NOT DUE TO SCHIZOPHRENIA, AFFECTIVE DISOPRDERS (disturbance of mood), or PROFOUND RETARDATION

Procedures to follow if Attention Deficit Disorder is suspected
1. See if the observed behaviors appear in the classroom as well as other areas
2. If they do, ask the school to observe the child
3. If the school agrees that such a possibility exists, notify the family doctor to examiine the child. He/she may suggest a neurological examination to determine the presence of the disorder. Medication may or may not be suggested.
4. If the disorder is diagnosed, meet with the school to plan a management program at home and in school.
5. If the disorder is serious and affects the child's ability to learn, he/she may need to be reviewed by the district's Committee on Special Education so that a suitable program can be determined.
6. A full psychological and academic evaluation would also assist in determining a proper course of action.

In conclusion, early diagnosis and active treatment will greatly enhance the child's opportunity for a meaningful life both at home and in school.

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Autism

WHAT IS AUTISM?
Autism is a life-long developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what they see, hear, and otherwise sense. This results in severe problems of social relationships, communication, and behavior.
WHAT IS THE CHARACTERISTIC OF AUTISM?
Delays in language development, delays in understanding social relationships, inconsistent patterns of sensory response, even patterns of intellectual functioning, and marked restriction of activity and interest.
WHAT CAUSES AUTISM?
Autism is a brain disorder, present from birth, which affects the way the brain uses information. The causes of autism is still unknown. Some research suggest a physical problem affecting those parts of the brain that process language and information coming from the senses. There may be some imbalance of certain chemicals in the brain. Genetic factors may sometimes be involved. Autism may indeed result from a combination of several causes. No factors in the psychological environment of the child causes autism.

Children with autism are visual learners and need highly organized learning environments, and acceptance of their handicap that can not be changed. Professionals working with children with autism have noticed that they can learn if they have visual information available to them at all times.

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Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy is a condition caused by damage to the brain, usually occurring before, during or shortly following birth. "Cerebral" refers to the brain and "palsy" to a disorder of movement or posture. It is neither progressive nor contagious. It is also not "curable", although education, therapy and applied technology can help a person with CP lead productive lives. It is not a disease. It can range from mild to severe.
The causes of CP include illness during pregnancy, premature delivery, and lack of oxygen supply to the baby. It may occur in early life as a result of an accident, lead poisoning, viral infection, child abuse, or other factors.
CP is characterized by an inability to fully control motor function. One or more of the following may occur: spasms; tonal problems; involuntary movement; disturbance in gait and mobility; seizures; abnormal sensations and perception; impairment of sight, hearing or speech; and mental retardation.
Activities for children with CP may include:
*speech and language therapy
*occupational therapy
*physical therapy
*medical intervention
*family support services
*early education
*assistive technology


also visit: https://cerebralpalsygroup.com/resources/legal/lawyer/


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Common Disruptive Behavior Disorders

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)- Children with this disorder exhibit behaviors of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness that are inappropriate for their age levels. Teachers should be aware of the academic as well as the social difficulties experienced by students with this disorder. Social rejection is common, and may contribute to low self-esteem, low frustration tolerance, and possible aggressive or compulsive behavior patterns.
2. Conduct Disorder - This condition is characterized by a persistent pattern of behavior that intrudes and violates the basic rights of others without concern or fear of implications. Behaviors present with this condition may ionclude vandalism, stealing, physical aggression, cruelty to animals, and fire setting. Children with this condition may be physically confrontational to teachers and peers, have poor attendance, have high levels of suspension, and exhibit other forms of antisocial behavior.
3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder - This disorder is usually characterized by patterns of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behaviors with peers as well as adults. Children with this disorder usually exhibit argumentative behaviors toward adults that include swearing and frequent episodes of intense anger and annoyance. Teachers who have children with this disorder in their classes may observe low frustration tolerance, frequent temper outbursts, low asense of confidence, an unwillingness to take responsibility for their actions, consistent blaming of others for their own mistakes or problems, and frequent behaviors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.


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Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a neurocognitive deficit that is specifically related to the reading and spelling process. Current research indicates that the vast majority of children with dyslexia have phonological core deficits. The severity of the phonological deficits varies across individuals, and children with these deficits have been shown to make significantly less progress in basic word reading skills compared to children with equivalent IQs. Without direct instruction in phonemic awareness and sound-symbol correspondences, these children generally fail to attain adequate reading levels.
Phonological core deficits entail difficulty making use of phonological information when processing written and oral language. Problems with phonemic awareness are most prevalent and can coexist with difficulties in storage and retrieval among children with dyslexia who have phonological deficits.
Phonemic awareness referes to one's understanding of and access to the sound structure of language. For example, children with dyslexia have difficulty segmenting words into individual syllables or phonemes and have trouble blending speech sounds into words.
School psychologist classify children based on federal and state learning disability placement criteria. The federal guidelines for LD placement are as follows:
1. Disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes (memory, auditory perception, visual perception, oral language, and thinking).
2. Difficulty in learning (speaking, listening, writing, reading, and mathematics).
3. Problem is not primarily due to other causes (visual or hearing impairment, motor disabilities, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, or economic, environment, or cultural disadvantage).
4. Severe discrepancy between apparent potential and actual achievement.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN WITH DYSLEXIA
Primary Characteristics for Early Detections
1. The child has poor ability to associate sounds with corresponding symbols.
2. The child ignores details of words and has difficulty retaining the words in his or her mind.
3. The child frequently quesses words - won't look at the word but will seek pictorial clues.
4. The child has confused spatial orientation. He or she reverses words, letters, and numbers. Mirror reading and writing are frequently encountered.
5. The child has poor auditory discrimination.
6. The child exhibits confusion of left and right (referred to as mixed dominance).
7. The child frequently loses his or her place on a page, and frequently skips lines.
8. The child has difficulty in working with jigsaw puzzles, holding a pencil, and walking a chalk line.
9. Newly learned words are forgotten from day to day. Reading rhythm is usually poor and labored.

Secondary Characteristics
1. There is no mental disability and intelligence is measured as average to superior.
2. The child exhibits general confusion in orientation, confuses days, time, distance, size, and right and left directions
3. The child displays poor motor coordination, a swaying gait, and awkwardness when playing games.
4. There are speech delays and the child has difficulty in pronunciation.
5. The child feels inadequate and has low self-esteem.
6. Special tutoring, with conventional reading methods, doesn't work.
7. The child displays general irritability, aggressiveness, avoidance reactions, defensiveness, withdrawl, and behavioral problems.


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Hearing Impaired

Deaf: "A hearing impairment which is so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, which adversely affects educational performance."

Hard of Hearing: "A hearing impairment, whether permanent of fluctuating, which adversely affects a child's educational performance but which is not included under the definition of 'deaf'."

Deaf-Blind: "Simultaneous hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational problems that a child cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for deaf children or blind children." (All definitions are from IDEA.)

A hearing impairment exists when an individual is not sensitive to the sounds normally heard by its kind. In human beings, the term hearing impairment is usually reserved for people who have relative insensitivity to sound in the speech frequencies. The severity of a hearing impairment is categorized according to how much louder a sound must be made over the usual levels before the listener can detect it. In profound deafness, even the loudest sounds that can be produced by the instrument used to measure hearing (audiometer) may not be detected.
There is another aspect to hearing that involves the quality of a sound rather than amplitude. In people, that aspect is usually measured by tests of speech discrimination. Basically, these tests require that the sound is not only detected but understood. There are very rare types of hearing impairments which affect discrimination alone.

Over time, the average hearing impaired student shows an ever increasing gap in vocabulary growth, complex sentence comprehension and construction, and in concept formation as compared to students with normal hearing. Hearing impaired students often learn to "feign" comprehension with the end result being that the student does have optimal learning opportunities. Therefore, facilitative strategies for hearing impaired students are primarily concerned with various aspects of communication. Other problems arise because deafness is an invisible disability. It is easy for teachers to "forget about it" and treat the student as not having a disability. It has also been shown that hearing impaired students with good English skills also have good science concept formation. (After "Mainstream Teaching of Science: A Source Book", Keller et al.)

The severity of a hearing impairment is ranked according to the loudness (measured in decibels (dB)) a sound must be before being detected by an individual. Hearing impairment may be ranked as mild, moderate, severe or profound as defined below:
• Mild:
o for adults: between 25 and 40 dB
o for children: between 20 and 40 dB
• Moderate: between 41 and 55 dB
• Moderately severe: between 56 and 70 dB
• Severe: between 71 and 90 dB
• Profound: 90 dB or greater


Learning Disability

The federal government defines learning disabilities as: Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding and using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, or mental retardation, emotional disturbances, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

Learning disabilities typically affect five general areas:
1. Spoken language: delays, disorders, and deviations in listening and speaking
2. Written language: difficulties with reading, writing, and spelling
3. Arithmetic: difficulty in performing arithmetic operations or in understanding basic concepts
4. Reasoning: difficulty in organizing and integrating thoughts
5. Memory: difficulty in remembering information and instructions

Among the symptoms commonly related to learning disabilities are:

ACADEMIC SYMPTOMS

*poor performance on group tests
*reversals in reading and writing
*difficulty in copying accurately from a model
*slowness in completing work
*easily confused by instructions
*difficulty with tasks requiring sequencing

COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS
*difficulty discriminating size, shape, color
*difficulty with temporal (time) concepts
*distorted concept of body image
*poor organizational skills
*difficulty with abstract reasoning and/or problem solving
*disorganized thinking
*often obsesses on one topic or idea
*poor short-term or long-term memory
*lags in developmental milestones (e.g. motor, language)

PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
*general awkwardness
*poor visual-motor coordination
*hyperactivity
*overly distractable; difficulty concentrating
*lack of hand preference or mixed dominance

BEHAVIORAL/SOCIAL SYMPTOMS
*impulsive behavior; lack of reflective thought prior to action
*low tolerance for frustration
*excessive movement during sleep
*poor peer relationships
*overly excitable during group play
*poor social judgement
*inappropriate, unselective, and often excessive display of
affection
*behavior often inappropriate for situation
*failure to see consequences of actions
*overly gullible; easily led by peers
*excessive variation in mood and responsiveness
*poor adjustment to environmental changes
*difficulty making decisions

When considering these symptoms, it is important to remain mindful of the following:
1) No one will have all these symptoms.
2) Among LD populations, some symptoms are more common than others.
3) All people have at least two or three of these problems to some degree.
4) The number of symptoms seen in a particular child does not give an indication as to whether the disability is mild or severe. It is important to consider if the behaviors are chronic and appear in clusters.





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Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is a related service provided to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education. School physical therapy focuses on a child's ability to move as independently as possible in the school environment. The school physical therapist evaluates the child's ability to move throughout the school and to participate in classroom activities.

The decision of whether a child with a disability qualifies for school physical therapy is made by a team. This team determines whether the child has a disability, has a need for special education, and requires related services such as physical therapy.

Physical therapy interventions are designed to enable the student to travel throughout the school environment; participate in classroom activities; maintain and change positions in the classroom; as well as manage stairs, restrooms, and the cafeteria.


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Section 504

Section 504 is a federal statute that prohibits discrimination based upon a disability. Section 504 covers eligible students and other individuals with disabilities for reasonable accommodations that enable them to work or learn. A team knowledgeable of the person determines if the individual meets eligibility criteria. The following is the definition of a disability under Section 504.
A person may be considered under the definition of Section 504 if the individual:
1. has a mental or physical impairment which subsequently limits one or more of such person's major life activities (caring for one’s self, walking, seeing, speaking, learning, performing manual tasks, working, hearing, breathing)
2. has a record of such an impairment; or
3. is regarded as having such an impairment


Speech and Language Disorders

Speech and Language disorders are refer to problems in communication and related areas such as motor function. These delays and disorders range from a simple sound substitutions to the inability to understand or use language or use oral-motor mechanism for functional speech and feeding. Some causes of speech and language disorders include hearing loss, neurologiacl disorders, brain injury, mental retardation, drug abuse, pjysical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, and voice abuse or misuse. frequently, however, the cause is unknown.
A child's communication is considered delayed when the child is noticeably behind his/her peers in the acquisition of speech and/or language skills. Sometimes a child will have greater receptive (understanding) than expressive (speaking) language skills, but this is not always the case.
Speech disorders refer to difficulties producing speech sounds or problems with voice quality. They might be characterized by an interruption in the flow of rhythm of speech, such as stuttering, which is called dysfluency. Speech disorders may be problems with the way sounds are formend, called articulation or phonological disorders, or they may be difficulties with the pitch, volume or quality of voice.
A language disorder is an impairment in the ability to understand and/ or use words in context, both verbally and nonverbally. Some characteristics of language disorders include improper use of words and their meanings, inability to express ideas, inappropriate grammatical patterns, reduced vocabulary and inabiility to follow directions.
Speech-language pathologists assist children who have communication disorders in various ways. they provide individual therapy for the child; consult with the child's teacehr about the most effective ways to facilitate the child's communication in the class setting; and work closely with the family to develop goals and techniques for effective therapy in class and at home. Technology can help children whose physical conditions make communication difficult. the use of electronic communication systems allow nonspeaking people and people with severe physical disabilities to engage in the give and take of shared thoughts.
Communication has many components. All serve to increase the way people learn about the world around them, utilize knowledge and skills, and interact with colleagues, family, and friends.

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Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain or head injury is usually thought of in terms of a "closed" head injury or an "open" head injury. A "closed head injury" refers to damage that occurs within the skull after a blow to the head. Although the skull may stop on impact, the brain will continue to whip back and forth against the skull from within causing damage. The second category of head injury referred to as "open head injury" is a visible assault and may be the result of a gun shot wound. A "blow" to the head does not necessarily need to take place for a brain injury to occur. For example, in a minor vehicle injury, the rapid deceleration on impact may set up a variety of forces in the cranium that can produce a significant brain injury from acceleration-deceleration effects.
TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS WITH BRAIN INJURY
A. Attention/Concentration
1. reduce distractions
2. divide work into smaller sections and set time limits
3. oral summaries
4. cue words to focus
5. nonverbal cue system
B. Memory
1. repeat and summarize information often
2. assignment or homework sheet
3. teach self reminder skills
4. categorize information
5. teach use of mental pictures
6. access prior knowledge to link new information
7. associate instructional material to experience
C. Organization
1. extra review time
2. checklists and teach skills to use effectively
3. written schedule
4. written cues for organization
5. sequence materials
6. outline of class presentation
7. color-coded materials and texts
8. help plan events to increase organizational skills
D. Following Directions
1. oral and written directions
2. repeat instructions
3. mark important parts of directions or written assignments
4. simplify directions into steps
5. as student to perform task immediately after instruction and check for accuracy
6. slow instructional pace


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Vision Impairment, Blind and Deafblind

Vision - The capacity to see, after correction, is limited, impaired, or absent and results in one or more of the following: reduced performance in visual acuity tasks; difficulty with written communication; and/or difficulty with understanding information presented visually in the education environment. The term includes students who are blind and students with limited vision.

Deaf-Blind - Concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes severe communication and other developmental and educational needs.

Eligibility

Students ages 0–21 who have medically diagnosed as having a visual impairment and show an educational need
An acuity of 20/60 or less in the child's best eye with corrections
A visual field of less than 20 degrees
A degenerative condition which will cause a significant vision loss
A serious temporary loss due to patching, accident, injury, etc.

Behaviors that could signify a vision problem

Shows sensitivity to light
Squints to see things close or far away
Turns or tilts head to one side to see better
Rubs eyes a lot
Blinks often when reading or watching TV
Closes or covers one eye to see things close or far away
Stares at lights for long periods of time
Has trouble locating or picking up small objects
Has crusty eye lids, red and water eyes, or frequent styes
Eyes do not move together
Eyes are crossed

   
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